tours to cracow
The KrakÃ³w Uprising of February 1846 was an attempt, led by Polish insurgents such as Jan Tyssowski and Edward Dembowski, to incite a fight for national independence. The uprising was centered on the city of KrakÃ³w, the capital of a small state of Free City of KrakÃ³w. It was directed at the powers that partitioned Poland, in particular, the nearby Austrian Empire. The uprising lasted about nine days, and ended with Austrian victory.
Name Vistula - etymology
The name was first recorded by Pomponius Mela in a.d. 40 and by Pliny in a.d. 77 in his Natural History. Mela names the river Vistula (3.33), Pliny uses Vistla (4.81, 4.97, 4.100). The root of the name Vistula is Indo-European *u?eis- ?to ooze, flow slowly? (cf. Sanskrit ?????? / ave?an ?they flowed?, Old Norse veisa ?slime?) and is found in many European rivernames (e.g. Weser, Viesinta).2 The diminutive endings -ila, -ula, were used in many Indo-European languages, including Latin (see Ursula).
In writing about the Vistula River and its peoples, Ptolemy uses the Greek spelling Ouistoula. Other ancient sources spell it Istula. Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the Bisula (Book 22), note the lack the -t-. Jordanes (Getica 5 & 17) uses Viscla while the Anglo-Saxon poem Widsith refers to it as the Wistla.3 12th-century Polish chronicler Wincenty KadÅ‚ubek Latinised the rivername as Vandalus, a form presumably influenced by Lithuanian vandu? ?water?, while Jan DÅ‚ugosz in his Annales seu cronicae incliti regni Poloniae called the Vistula ?white waters? (Alba aqua), perhaps referring to the White Little Vistula (BiaÅ‚a WiseÅ‚ka): ?a nationibus orientalibus Polonis vicinis, ob aquae candorem Alba aqua ... nominatur.?
History of Cracow after 1918
After the war, under the Polish People's Republic, the intellectual and academic community of KrakÃ³w was put under total political control. The universities were soon deprived of printing rights and autonomy.63 The Stalinist government ordered the construction of the country's largest steel mill in the newly created suburb of Nowa Huta.64 The creation of the giant Lenin Steelworks (now Sendzimir Steelworks owned by Mittal) sealed KrakÃ³w's transformation from a university city to an industrial centre.65 The new working class, drawn by the industrialisation of KrakÃ³w, contributed to rapid population growth.
In an effort that spanned two decades, Karol WojtyÅ‚a, cardinal archbishop of KrakÃ³w, successfully lobbied for permission to build the first churches in the new industrial suburbs.6566 In 1978, WojtyÅ‚a was elevated to the papacy as John Paul II, the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. In the same year, UNESCO placed KrakÃ³w Old Town on the first-ever list of World Heritage Sites.